Aims: Some antipsychotics increase prolactin levels, which might increase the risk of breast cancer. Existing evidence is conflicting and based on sparse data, especially for the increasingly used second-generation antipsychotics. We conducted a nationwide case-control study of the association between antipsychotic use and incident breast cancer.
Methods: From the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified women with a first-time diagnosis of breast cancer 2000-2015 (n = 60 360). For each case, we age-matched 10 female population controls. Using conditional logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) for breast cancer associated with use of antipsychotics. We stratified antipsychotics by first- and second-generation status and by ability to induce elevation of prolactin.
Results: In total, 4951 cases (8.1%) and 47 643 controls (7.9%) had ever used antipsychotics. Long-term use (≥10 000 mg olanzapine equivalents) was associated with breast cancer, with an adjusted OR of 1.18 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06, 1.32]. A weak dose-response pattern was seen, with ORs increasing to 1.27 (95% CI 1.01, 1.59) for ≥50 000 mg olanzapine equivalents. Associations were similar for first- and second-generation antipsychotics (ORs 1.17 vs. 1.11), but also for nonprolactin inducing-antipsychotics (OR 1.17). Stratifying by oestrogen receptor status, positive associations were seen for oestrogen receptor-positive cancers (long-term use: OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.13, 1.47) while no associations were observed for oestrogen receptor-negative cancers.
Conclusions: Overall, our results do not suggest a clinically important association between antipsychotic use and risk of breast cancer. The importance of drug-induced prolactin elevation is unclear but may lead to a slightly increased risk of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Keywords: antipsychotics; breast cancer; pharmacoepidemiology.
© 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.