Due to its biological properties, human amniotic membrane (hAM) is widely studied in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. hAM is already very attractive for wound healing and it may be helpful as a support for bone regeneration. However, few studies assessed its potential for guided bone regeneration (GBR). The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential of the hAM as a membrane for GBR. In vitro, cell viability in fresh and cryopreserved hAM was assessed. In vivo, we evaluated the impact of fresh versus cryopreserved hAM, using both the epithelial or the mesenchymal layer facing the defect, on bone regeneration in a critical calvarial bone defect in mice. Then, the efficacy of cryopreserved hAM associated with a bone substitute was compared to a collagen membrane currently used for GBR. In vitro, no statistical difference was observed between the conditions concerning cell viability. Without graft material, cryopreserved hAM induced more bone formation when the mesenchymal layer covered the defect compared to the defect left empty. When associated with a bone substitute, such improved bone repair was not observed. These preliminary results suggest that cryopreserved hAM has a limited potential for GBR.