Ethnopharmacological relevance: Barks of Ximenia americana are used by the population to treat gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders. Indomethacin is a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that induces marked gastrointestinal damage.
Aims of the studies: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of total polysaccharides contained in the extract (TPL-Xa) or tea (Tea-Xa) of Ximenia americana barks in the mice gastric damage induced by indomethacin.
Materials and methods: TPL-Xa was obtained by a combination of NaOH extraction and ethanol precipitation. Tea-Xa was prepared in distilled water boiled during 5 min. Animals received p.o. 0.9% NaCl (saline - control group), TPL-Xa (1-90 mg/kg) or Tea-Xa 1 h before gastritis induction by indomethacin (20 mg/kg). Mice were sacrificed 7 h after gastritis induction and analyzed for the following parameters: stomach lesions measurement; histological evaluation; myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity; nitrate/nitrite and cytokine levels; leukocyte adhesion and rolling by intravital microscopy.
Results: TPL-Xa reduced macroscopic and microscopic damage, MPO activity (59%), leukocyte rolling (86%) and adhesion (84%), nitrite/nitrate ratio (100%) and IL-8 (69%), but increased IL-4 (50%). Tea-Xa (12.8 yield; 39.3% carbohydrate, including 25.8% uronic acid; 4% protein) reduced macroscopic damage (62%) and MPO activity (50%).
Conclusion: TPL and Tea of Ximenia americana barks ameliorate the gastric injury induced by indomethacin in mice, an effect that was dependent on the reduction of neutrophil infiltration.
Keywords: Ameixa-do-mato; Barks; Gastric damage; Indomethacin; Polysaccharides.
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