The polysaccharide-rich tea of Ximenia americana barks prevents indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal damage via neutrophil inhibition

J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Oct 5;224:195-201. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.05.041. Epub 2018 May 30.

Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Barks of Ximenia americana are used by the population to treat gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders. Indomethacin is a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that induces marked gastrointestinal damage.

Aims of the studies: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of total polysaccharides contained in the extract (TPL-Xa) or tea (Tea-Xa) of Ximenia americana barks in the mice gastric damage induced by indomethacin.

Materials and methods: TPL-Xa was obtained by a combination of NaOH extraction and ethanol precipitation. Tea-Xa was prepared in distilled water boiled during 5 min. Animals received p.o. 0.9% NaCl (saline - control group), TPL-Xa (1-90 mg/kg) or Tea-Xa 1 h before gastritis induction by indomethacin (20 mg/kg). Mice were sacrificed 7 h after gastritis induction and analyzed for the following parameters: stomach lesions measurement; histological evaluation; myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity; nitrate/nitrite and cytokine levels; leukocyte adhesion and rolling by intravital microscopy.

Results: TPL-Xa reduced macroscopic and microscopic damage, MPO activity (59%), leukocyte rolling (86%) and adhesion (84%), nitrite/nitrate ratio (100%) and IL-8 (69%), but increased IL-4 (50%). Tea-Xa (12.8 yield; 39.3% carbohydrate, including 25.8% uronic acid; 4% protein) reduced macroscopic damage (62%) and MPO activity (50%).

Conclusion: TPL and Tea of Ximenia americana barks ameliorate the gastric injury induced by indomethacin in mice, an effect that was dependent on the reduction of neutrophil infiltration.

Keywords: Ameixa-do-mato; Barks; Gastric damage; Indomethacin; Polysaccharides.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Beverages*
  • Cell Adhesion / drug effects
  • Female
  • Gastric Mucosa / drug effects
  • Gastric Mucosa / immunology
  • Gastric Mucosa / metabolism
  • Gastric Mucosa / pathology
  • Gastritis / chemically induced
  • Gastritis / drug therapy*
  • Gastritis / immunology
  • Gastritis / metabolism
  • Indomethacin
  • Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects
  • Intestinal Mucosa / immunology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Leukocyte Rolling / drug effects
  • Leukocytes / drug effects
  • Leukocytes / physiology
  • Mice
  • Neutrophil Infiltration / drug effects
  • Nitrates / metabolism
  • Nitrites / metabolism
  • Olacaceae*
  • Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Bark
  • Plant Extracts* / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts* / therapeutic use
  • Polysaccharides* / pharmacology
  • Polysaccharides* / therapeutic use
  • Protective Agents* / pharmacology
  • Protective Agents* / therapeutic use

Substances

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Nitrates
  • Nitrites
  • Plant Extracts
  • Polysaccharides
  • Protective Agents
  • Peroxidase
  • Indomethacin