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. 2018 Nov 1;4(11):1553-1568.
doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.2706.

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2016: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study

Global Burden of Disease Cancer CollaborationChristina Fitzmaurice  1   2   3 Tomi F Akinyemiju  4 Faris Hasan Al Lami  5 Tahiya Alam  2 Reza Alizadeh-Navaei  6 Christine Allen  2 Ubai Alsharif  7 Nelson Alvis-Guzman  8 Erfan Amini  9   10 Benjamin O Anderson  11 Olatunde Aremu  12 Al Artaman  13 Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom  14 Reza Assadi  15 Tesfay Mehari Atey  14 Leticia Avila-Burgos  16 Ashish Awasthi  17 Huda Omer Ba Saleem  18 Aleksandra Barac  19 James R Bennett  2 Isabela M Bensenor  20 Nickhill Bhakta  21 Hermann Brenner  22 Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado  16 Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela  23   24 Ferrán Catalá-López  25   26 Jee-Young Jasmine Choi  27   28 Devasahayam Jesudas Christopher  29 Sheng-Chia Chung  30 Maria Paula Curado  31   32 Lalit Dandona  2   33 Rakhi Dandona  2   33 José das Neves  34   35 Subhojit Dey  36 Samath D Dharmaratne  37 David Teye Doku  38   39 Tim R Driscoll  40 Manisha Dubey  41 Hedyeh Ebrahimi  9   42 Dumessa Edessa  43 Ziad El-Khatib  44   45 Aman Yesuf Endries  46 Florian Fischer  47 Lisa M Force  21 Kyle J Foreman  2   48 Solomon Weldemariam Gebrehiwot  49 Sameer Vali Gopalani  50 Giuseppe Grosso  51   52 Rahul Gupta  53 Bishal Gyawali  54 Randah Ribhi Hamadeh  55 Samer Hamidi  56 James Harvey  2 Hamid Yimam Hassen  57 Roderick J Hay  58   59 Simon I Hay  2   60 Behzad Heibati  61 Molla Kahssay Hiluf  62 Nobuyuki Horita  63 H Dean Hosgood  64 Olayinka S Ilesanmi  65 Kaire Innos  66 Farhad Islami  67 Mihajlo B Jakovljevic  68   69 Sarah Charlotte Johnson  2 Jost B Jonas  70 Amir Kasaeian  71   72 Tesfaye Dessale Kassa  14 Yousef Saleh Khader  73 Ejaz Ahmad Khan  74 Gulfaraz Khan  75 Young-Ho Khang  76   77 Mohammad Hossein Khosravi  78   79 Jagdish Khubchandani  80 Jacek A Kopec  81 G Anil Kumar  33 Michael Kutz  2 Deepesh Pravinkumar Lad  82 Alessandra Lafranconi  83 Qing Lan  84 Yirga Legesse  14 James Leigh  85 Shai Linn  86 Raimundas Lunevicius  87   88 Azeem Majeed  89 Reza Malekzadeh  90 Deborah Carvalho Malta  91 Lorenzo G Mantovani  83 Brian J McMahon  92 Toni Meier  93 Yohannes Adama Melaku  94   95 Mulugeta Melku  96 Peter Memiah  97 Walter Mendoza  98 Tuomo J Meretoja  99   100 Haftay Berhane Mezgebe  14 Ted R Miller  101   102 Shafiu Mohammed  103   104 Ali H Mokdad  2 Mahmood Moosazadeh  105 Paula Moraga  106 Seyyed Meysam Mousavi  107 Vinay Nangia  108 Cuong Tat Nguyen  109 Vuong Minh Nong  109 Felix Akpojene Ogbo  110 Andrew Toyin Olagunju  111   112   113 Mahesh Pa  114 Eun-Kee Park  115 Tejas Patel  116 David M Pereira  117 Farhad Pishgar  10   118 Maarten J Postma  119   120 Farshad Pourmalek  81 Mostafa Qorbani  121 Anwar Rafay  122   123 Salman Rawaf  48 David Laith Rawaf  124   125   126 Gholamreza Roshandel  90   127 Saeid Safiri  128 Hamideh Salimzadeh  129 Juan Ramon Sanabria  130   131 Milena M Santric Milicevic  132   133 Benn Sartorius  134   135 Maheswar Satpathy  136 Sadaf G Sepanlou  90 Katya Anne Shackelford  2 Masood Ali Shaikh  137 Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini  138 Jun She  139 Min-Jeong Shin  140 Ivy Shiue  141   142 Mark G Shrime  143 Abiy Hiruye Sinke  144 Mekonnen Sisay  43 Amber Sligar  2 Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan  145 Bryan L Sykes  146 Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos  25 Gizachew Assefa Tessema  96   147 Roman Topor-Madry  148   149 Tung Thanh Tran  109 Bach Xuan Tran  150   151 Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja  152 Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov  153 Stein Emil Vollset  2 Elisabete Weiderpass  154   155   156   157 Hywel C Williams  158 Nigus Bililign Yimer  159 Naohiro Yonemoto  160 Mustafa Z Younis  161 Christopher J L Murray  2 Mohsen Naghavi  2
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Free PMC article

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2016: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study

Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration et al. JAMA Oncol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Importance: The increasing burden due to cancer and other noncommunicable diseases poses a threat to human development, which has resulted in global political commitments reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases. To determine if these commitments have resulted in improved cancer control, quantitative assessments of the cancer burden are required.

Objective: To assess the burden for 29 cancer groups over time to provide a framework for policy discussion, resource allocation, and research focus.

Evidence review: Cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were evaluated for 195 countries and territories by age and sex using the Global Burden of Disease study estimation methods. Levels and trends were analyzed over time, as well as by the Sociodemographic Index (SDI). Changes in incident cases were categorized by changes due to epidemiological vs demographic transition.

Findings: In 2016, there were 17.2 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.9 million deaths. Cancer cases increased by 28% between 2006 and 2016. The smallest increase was seen in high SDI countries. Globally, population aging contributed 17%; population growth, 12%; and changes in age-specific rates, -1% to this change. The most common incident cancer globally for men was prostate cancer (1.4 million cases). The leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer (1.2 million deaths and 25.4 million DALYs). For women, the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was breast cancer (1.7 million incident cases, 535 000 deaths, and 14.9 million DALYs). In 2016, cancer caused 213.2 million DALYs globally for both sexes combined. Between 2006 and 2016, the average annual age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 130 of 195 countries or territories, and the average annual age-standardized death rates decreased within that timeframe in 143 of 195 countries or territories.

Conclusions and relevance: Large disparities exist between countries in cancer incidence, deaths, and associated disability. Scaling up cancer prevention and ensuring universal access to cancer care are required for health equity and to fulfill the global commitments for noncommunicable disease and cancer control.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Postma reports that he has received grants and honoraria from GSK, Pfizer, Vertex, BMS, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Takeda, MSD, Sanofi, SPMSD, Janssen, Novartis, IMS, Roche, Ingress Health, Astra Zeneca, Virology Education, AbbVie, Mundipharma, Creativ Ceutical, and Medica Market Access. Dr. Shrime has received grants from the GE foundation and the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation. No other disclosures are reported.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.. Age-Specific Global Contributions of Cancer Types to Total Cancer Incidence, Both Sexes, 2016
Figure 2.
Figure 2.. Age-Specific Global Contributions of Cancer Types to Total Cancer Mortality, Both Sexes, 2016
Figure 3.
Figure 3.. Average Annual Percent Change in Age-Standarized Incidence Rate in Both Sexes for All Cancers From 2006 to 2016
ATG indicates Antigua and Barbuda; BRB, Barbados; COM, Comoros; DMA, Dominica; E Med: Eastern Mediterranean; FJI, Fiji; FSM, Federated States of Micronesia; GRD, Grenada; KIR, Kiribati; KS, Kaposi sarcoma; LCA, Saint Lucia; MDV, Maldives; MLT, Malta; MUS, Mauritius; MHL, Marshall Islands; NMSC, nonmelanoma skin cancer; SGP, Singapore; SLB, Solomon Islands; SYC, Seychelles; TLS, Timor-Leste; TON, Tonga; TTO, Trinidad and Tobago; VCT, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; VUT, Vanuatu; W Africa, West Africa; WSM, Samoa.
Figure 4.
Figure 4.. Average Annual Percent Change in Age-Standarized Mortality Rate in Both Sexes for All Cancers From 2006 to 2016
ATG indicates Antigua and Barbuda; BRB, Barbados; COM, Comoros; DMA, Dominica; E Med: Eastern Mediterranean; FJI, Fiji; FSM, Federated States of Micronesia; GRD, Grenada; KIR, Kiribati; KS, Kaposi sarcoma; LCA, Saint Lucia; MDV, Maldives; MLT, Malta; MUS, Mauritius; MHL, Marshall Islands; NMSC, nonmelanoma skin cancer; SGP, Singapore; SLB, Solomon Islands; SYC, Seychelles; TLS, Timor-Leste; TON, Tonga; TTO, Trinidad and Tobago; VCT, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; VUT, Vanuatu; W Africa, West Africa; WSM, Samoa.
Figure 5.
Figure 5.. Cancers Ranked by Number of Incident Cases in Both Sexes, Globally, by Sociodemographic Index Status, and in the 50 Most Populous Countries, 2016
Figure 6.
Figure 6.. Cancers Ranked by Number of Deaths in Both Sexes, Globally, by Sociodemographic Index Status, and in the 50 Most Populous Countries, 2016
Figure 7.
Figure 7.. Cancers Ranked by Absolute Years of Life Lost (YLLs) Between 2006 and 2016a
SCC indicates squamous cell carcinoma; UI, uncertainty interval. aExcluding “other cancer.”

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