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. 2018 Jun 5;18(1):172.
doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2222-9.

Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase and Antifatigue Effects of Trichilia Catigua (Catuaba)

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Free PMC article

Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase and Antifatigue Effects of Trichilia Catigua (Catuaba)

Nadini Oliveira Martins et al. BMC Complement Altern Med. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (Meliaceae) is a species known as catuaba and used in folk medicine for the treatment of fatigue, stress, impotence and memory deficit. The main phytochemical compounds identified in the barks of T. catigua are flavalignans, flavan-3-ols and flavonoids which are associated with its antioxidant activity. Pre-clinical studies with T. catigua extracts have identified many pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, antinociceptive, pro-memory and neuroprotective against ischemia and oxidative stress. This study was designed in order to compare the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of four different polarity extracts and selected the one most active for in vivo studies in rodent models of stress, fatigue and memory.

Methods: Hexane, chloroform, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts from bark of Trichilia catigua were analyzed by RPHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and acetylcholinesterase inhibition by Ellman's modified method. In vivo studies (stress, fatigue and memory) were carried out with adult male mice and rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract in doses of 25-300 mg/kg (p.o.).

Results: We confirmed the presence of cinchonain IIa, Ia and Ib, as main constituents in the four extracts, while procyanidins were detected only in hydroalcoholic extract. Antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity were observed for all extracts, with most potent activity found on the hydroalcoholic extract (EC50 = 43 μg/mL and IC50 = 142 μg/mL for DPPH scavenger and acetylcholinesterase inhibition, respectively). The treatment of laboratory animals with hydroalcoholic extract did not protect rats from cold immobilization stress and did not prevent the scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. However, the treatment of mice with the hydroalcoholic extract partially reduced the fatigue induced by treadmill, since the highest dose increased the spontaneous locomotor activity and reduced the deficit on grip strength after the forced exercise (p < 0.05), in some observation times.

Conclusions: These data suggest the hydroalcoholic extract as the most suitable for plant extraction and partially support the folk use of T. catigua as antifatigue drug. . Trichilia catigua hydroalcoholic extract exhibits antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity in vitro and reduces the fatigue induced by forced exercise.

Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase inhibition; Adaptogen; Antifatigue; Antioxidant; Cinchonains; Phenylpropanoids; Procyanidins; Trichilia catigua.

Conflict of interest statement

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The project was approved by the Comissão de ética no uso de animais (ethics committee) of UNIFESP (protocol #0752/07). The consent to participate is not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Figures

None
Trichilia catigua hydroalcoholic extract exhibits antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity in vitro and reduces the fatigue induced by forced exercise.
Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Spontaneous locomotor activity of mice treated acutely with Trichilia catigua (TC) hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 50 and 500 mg/kg (p.o.). The columns and bars represent the means ± SEM (n = 10). ANOVA, n.s
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
a Fatigue time (maximum speed), b plasmatic lactate level and (c) spontaneous locomotor activity of mice chronically treated with Trichilia catigua (TC) hydroalcoholic extract (25, 100 and 250 mg/kg, p.o.) and subjected to the forced exercise on treadmill. The columns and bars express the mean ± SEM (n = 8–10). (*) p < 0.05: statistically different of control exercised group; (#) p < 0.05: statistically different of non-exercised control group. ANOVA followed by Duncan
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
a Post exercise grip strength, b difference of grip strength (before - post-exercise) and (c) performance change (post-exercise grip strength 49d - basal) of mice chronically treated with Trichilia catigua (TC) hydroalcoholic extract (25, 100 and 250 mg/kg, p.o.) and subjected to the forced exercise on treadmill. The columns and bars express the mean ± SEM (n = 8–10). (*) p < 0.05: statistically different of control group. ANOVA followed by Duncan
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Effect of treatment with Trichilia catigua (TC) hydroalcoholic extract (50 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) for 21 days on the amnesia induced by scopolamine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) on classical fear conditioning in mice. NC = negative control (did not receive scopolamine). The columns and bars express the mean ± SEM (n = 9–10). ANOVA, n.s

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