Immunoglobulin G4-related disease is a fibroinflammatory systemic disease that is characterized by focal or diffuse organ infiltration by immunoglobulin G4-bearing plasma cells. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease may affect any organ, and a high index of suspicion is necessary for early detection to avoid irreversible fibrosis, organ dysfunction, and death. Tumor-forming lesions are common radiological features of immunoglobulin G4-related disease that need to be differentiated from malignancies. The diagnostic approach requires the integration of clinical, biochemical, and radiographic manifestations with classic histopathologic features, which remain crucial to diagnosis. The histology of immunoglobulin G4-related disease is determined by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis in the presence of increased immunoglobulin G4-positve plasma cells. Although immunoglobulin G4-related disease forms a distinct, clinically independent disease category, many questions and problems remain unanswered, especially on its pathogenesis and the role of immunoglobulin G4. Advances in the understanding of immunoglobulin G4-related disease are likely to change the diagnostic approach in the future and create potential targets for therapeutic purposes. Here we describe the concept of immunoglobulin G4-related disease and the most recent knowledge in the clinico-pathological characteristics on this emerging disease. This study can guide clinicians in early diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgical resections.