Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and it is a fourth leading cause of cancer-related death. Carcinogenesis is a multistage disease process specified by the gradual procurement of mutations and epigenetic alterations in the expression of different genes, which finally lead to the occurrence of a malignancy. These genes have diversified roles regarding cancer development. Intracellular pathways are assigned to the expression of different genes, signal transduction, cell-cycle supervision, genomic stability, DNA repair, and cell-fate destination, like apoptosis, senescence. Extracellular pathways embrace tumour invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis. Altered expression patterns, leading the different clinical responses. This review highlights the list of molecular biomarkers that can be used for prognostic purposes and provide information on the likely outcome of the cancer disease in an untreated individual.
Keywords: HER2; apoptosis; cell cycle regulators; gastric cancer; invasiveness; microsatellite instability; mucins; multidrug resistance proteins; neovascularization; peritoneal spreading.