The Alanine-Serine-Cysteine-1 transporter (SLC7A10, Asc-1) has been shown to play a role in synaptic availability of glycine although the exact mechanism remains unclear. We used electrophysiological recordings and biochemical experiments to investigate the role of Asc-1 transporter in glycinergic transmission in the brainstem respiratory network. Using both the Asc-1 substrate and transportable inhibitor D-isoleucine (D-Ile), and the non-transportable Asc-1 blocker Lu AE00527 (Lu), we found that D-Ile reduces glycinergic transmission and increases glycine release via hetero-exchange, whereas Lu has no acute effect on glycinergic synaptic transmission. Furthermore, D-Ile increases the frequency and reduces amplitude of the phrenic nerve activity in the arterially-perfused working heart brainstem preparation. These results suggest a role of Asc-1 in modulating presynaptic glycine levels that can impact on the respiratory network.