Trend of Age-Adjusted Rates of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury in U.S. Emergency Departments from 2006 to 2013

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Jun 5;15(6):1171. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15061171.


Objective: To use the 2006⁻2013 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) database to describe trends of age-adjusted rates of pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) treated in U.S. emergency departments. Methods: Time trend analysis was conducted on age-adjusted rates among children ≤17 years in the U.S. The annual percent change (APC) was calculated by fitting a least squares regression to the logarithm of the rates, using the calendar year as an independent variable. Results: In males, motor-vehicle-related trauma (APC -2.5%) and severe TBI (APC -3.6%) decreased over the study time period. Conversely, concussion (APC 5.1%), unspecified head injury (APC 6.6%), fall-related TBI (APC 7.1%), and mild TBI (APC 5.9%) increased. In females, severe TBI (APC -3.3%) decreased over the study time period and concussion (APC 6.5%), unspecified head injury (APC 7.2%), fall-related TBI (APC 7.6%), and mild TBI (APC 6.8%) increased. Conclusion: The overall age-adjusted rates of pediatric TBI-related emergency department (ED) visits increased from 2006 to 2013, which is largely caused by pediatric mild TBIs, especially unspecified injury to the head (ICD-9-CM code 959.01) and concussion. In comparison, age-adjusted rates of pediatric severe TBIs decreased. A major contributing factor might be a reduced number of traffic-related head trauma.

Keywords: annual percent change; emergency department; pediatric; traumatic brain injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / epidemiology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Databases, Factual
  • Emergency Service, Hospital / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Time Factors
  • United States / epidemiology