Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEA) are the secondary toxic metabolites of fungi which contaminate a wide range of food and feedstuffs. Limiting exposure of humans and livestock to them is very essential. Among numerous methods of mycotoxin-degradation, biodegradation by microorganisms and enzymes is an effective and promising approach to eliminate their hazards. The present study aims to optimize the proportion of different species of beneficial microbes by means of response surface methodology (RSM) and its combination with mycotoxin-degradation enzymes. The results indicated that AFB1 and ZEA degradation rates were 38.38% and 42.18% by individual Bacillus subtilis (P < 0.05); however, AFB1 and ZEA degradation rates reached 45.49% and 44.90% (P < 0.05) when three probiotic species such as Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casein and Candida utilis were at a ratio of 1:1:1, corresponding with the predictive value of the RSM model. The further experiment showed that AFB1 and ZEA degradation rates were 63.95% and 73.51% (P < 0.05) when the compound of three probiotic species was combined with mycotoxin-degradation enzymes from Aspergillus oryzae at a ratio of 3:2. This result indicated that the combination of probiotics with mycotoxin-degradation enzymes is a promising new approach for synchronous detoxification of AFB1 and ZEA.
Keywords: Biodegradation; Mycotoxin; Response surface methodology; mycotoxin-degradation enzyme; probiotics.