Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2018 May 24;9:378.
doi: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00378. eCollection 2018.

Do Patients With Parkinson's Disease Exhibit Reduced Cheating Behavior? A Neuropsychological Study

Free PMC article

Do Patients With Parkinson's Disease Exhibit Reduced Cheating Behavior? A Neuropsychological Study

Nobuhito Abe et al. Front Neurol. .
Free PMC article


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopamine neurons. Since a seminal report was published in the early twentieth century, a growing body of literature has suggested that patients with PD display characteristic personality traits, such as cautiousness and inflexibility. Notably, PD patients have also been described as "honest," indicating that they have a remarkable tendency to avoid behaving dishonestly. In this study, we predicted that PD patients show reduced cheating behavior in opportunities for dishonest gain due to dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system. Thirty-two PD patients without dementia and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed an incentivized prediction task where participants were rewarded based on their self-reported accuracy, affording them the opportunity to behave dishonestly. Compared with HC, PD patients showed significantly lower accuracy in the prediction task. Furthermore, the mean accuracy of PD patients was virtually equivalent to the chance level. These results indicate that PD patients exhibit reduced cheating behavior when confronted with opportunities for dishonest gain.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; honesty; morality; personality; reward.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Task sequence of the incentivized prediction task. The participant privately predicted the location of the upcoming stimulus of a star shape. The participant then observed the outcome of the stimulus location (left or right) and indicated whether the prediction was accurate. The task was self-paced.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Percentage of self-reported wins in PD patients and HC. The accuracy of PD patients, which did not significantly differ from the chance level of 50%, was lower than that of HC. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations: PD, Parkinson’s disease; HC, healthy controls.

Similar articles

See all similar articles


    1. Pillon B, Boller F, Levy R, Dubois B. Cognitive deficits and dementia in Parkinson’s disease. 2nd ed In: Boller F, Cappa SF, editors. , editors. Handbook of Neuropsychology. Amsterdam: Elsevier; (2001). p. 311–71.
    1. Abe N, Mori E. Cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson disease (Japanese). Brain Nerve (2012) 64:321–31. - PubMed
    1. Bondi MW, Kaszniak AW, Bayles KA, Vance KT. Contributions of frontal system dysfunction to memory and perceptual abilities in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychology (1993) 7:89–102.10.1037/0894-4105.7.1.89 - DOI
    1. Bowen FP, Kamienny RS, Burns MM, Yahr M. Parkinsonism: effects of levodopa treatment on concept formation. Neurology (1975) 25:701–4.10.1212/WNL.25.8.701 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Brown RG, Marsden CD. Internal versus external cues and the control of attention in Parkinson’s disease. Brain (1988) 111:323–45.10.1093/brain/111.2.323 - DOI - PubMed

LinkOut - more resources