An Empirical Study Analyzing Job Productivity in Toxic Workplace Environments

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 May 21;15(5):1035. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15051035.


Purpose: This empirical study aims to determine the effects of a toxic workplace environment, which can negatively impact the job productivity of an employee. Methodology: Three hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed among the staff members of seven private universities in Pakistan with a final response rate of 89%. For analysis purposes, AMOS 22 was used to study the direct and indirect effects of the toxic workplace environment on job productivity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to ensure the convergent and discriminant validity of the factors, while the Hayes mediation approach was used to verify the mediating role of job burnout between the four dimensions of toxic workplace environment and job productivity. A toxic workplace with multiple dimensions, such as workplace ostracism, workplace incivility, workplace harassment, and workplace bullying, was used in this study. Findings: By using the multiple statistical tools and techniques, it has been proven that ostracism, incivility, harassment, and bullying have direct negative significant effects on job productivity, while job burnout was shown to be a statistical significant mediator between the dimensions of a toxic workplace environment and job productivity. Finally, we concluded that organizations need to eradicate the factors of toxic workplace environments to ensure their prosperity and success. Practical Implications: This study encourages managers, leaders, and top management to adopt appropriate policies for enhancing employees’ productivity. Limitations: This study was conducted by using a cross-sectional research design. Future research aims to expand the study by using a longitudinal research design.

Keywords: job burnout; job productivity; toxic workplace environment; workplace bullying; workplace harassment; workplace incivility; workplace ostracism.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Efficiency*
  • Female
  • Harassment, Non-Sexual
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Stress*
  • Pakistan
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Work Performance*
  • Workplace