Purpose of review: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) has become established as an effective therapeutic modality in the treatment of antibiotic-refractory recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. A number of formulations and methods of delivery of FMT are currently available, each with distinct advantages. This review aims to review donor and patient selection for FMT as well as procedural aspects of FMT to help guide clinical practice.
Recent findings: FMT can be obtained in fresh, frozen, lyophilized, and capsule-based formulations for delivery by oral ingestion, nasoenteric tube, colonoscopy, or enema (depending on the formulation used). Choosing the optimal method relies heavily on patient-related factors, including underlying pathology and severity of illness. As potential applications for FMT expand, careful donor screening and patient selection are critical to minimizing risk to patients and physicians. FMT represents an excellent therapeutic option for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis and holds promise as a possible treatment modality in a variety of other conditions. The wide array of delivery methods allows for its application in various disease states in both the inpatient and outpatient setting.
Keywords: Dysbiosis; Fecal transplant.