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Review
. 2019 Aug;26(4):600-606.
doi: 10.1111/1744-7917.12614. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Juvenile Hormone Signaling - A Mini Review

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Review

Juvenile Hormone Signaling - A Mini Review

Kang Li et al. Insect Sci. .

Abstract

Since it was first postulated by Wigglesworth in 1934, juvenile hormone (JH) is considered a status quo hormone in insects because it prevents metamorphosis that is initiated by the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). During the last decade, significant advances have been made regarding JH signaling. First, the bHLH-PAS transcription factor Met/Gce was identified as the JH intracellular receptor. In the presence of JH, with the assistance of Hsp83, and through physical association with a bHLH-PAS transcriptional co-activator, Met/Gce enters the nucleus and binds to E-box-like motifs in promoter regions of JH primary-response genes for inducing gene expression. Second, the zinc finger transcription factor Kr-h1 was identified as the anti-metamorphic factor which transduces JH signaling. Via Kr-h1 binding sites, Kr-h1 represses expression of 20E primary-response genes (i.e. Br, E93 and E75) to prevent 20E-induced metamorphosis. Third, through the intracellular signaling, JH promotes different aspects of female reproduction. Nevertheless, this action varies greatly from species to species. Last, a hypothetical JH membrane receptor has been predicted to be either a GPCR or a tyrosine kinase receptor. In future, it will be a great challenge to understand how the JH intracellular receptor Met/Gce and the yet unidentified JH membrane receptor coordinate to regulate metamorphosis and reproduction in insects.

Keywords: Kr-h1; Met/Gce; intracellular receptor; juvenile hormone (JH); membrane receptor; metamorphosis; reproduction.

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