Alterations to body composition (fat or lean mass), metabolic parameters such as whole-body oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, and substrate utilization, and behaviors such as food intake and physical activity can provide important information regarding the underlying mechanisms of disease. Given the importance of body composition and metabolism to the development of obesity and its subsequent sequelae, it is necessary to make accurate measures of these parameters in the pre-clinical research setting. Advances in technology over the past few decades have made it possible to derive these measures in rodent models in a non-invasive and longitudinal fashion. Consequently, these metabolic measures have proven useful when assessing the response of genetic manipulations (for example knockout or transgenic mice, viral knock-down or overexpression of genes), experimental drug/compound screening and dietary, behavioral or physical activity interventions. Herein, we describe the protocols used to measure body composition and metabolic parameters using an animal monitoring system in chow-fed and high fat diet-fed mice.