Despite extensive investigations, including the use of Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA), the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis (TB) remains challenging. Ocular evidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in low endemic countries for TB is extremely rare, leading mostly to a TB-related ocular inflammation presumptive diagnosis. This present work aims: to highlights the main clinical patterns suggestive of ocular TB; and the latest recommended guidelines for diagnosing ocular TB to clarify interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) contribution and accuracy to the management of intraocular TB and its diagnosis, in addition to other available diagnostic tools, such as tuberculin skin test, bacteriologic and histologic analysis from intra/extra ocular sample and radiographic investigations; to define the accuracy of these diagnostic tools according to the endemic TB prevalence; and finally to identify therapeutic strategies adapted to the main clinical presentations of ocular TB. Our review of the literature shows that management of suspected ocular TB differs significantly based on whether patients are from high or low TB prevalence countries since accuracy of chest X-ray, tuberculin skin test and IGRA is significantly different. Taking into account these discrepancies, distinct guidelines should be determined for managing patients with suspected ocular TB, taking into consideration home prevalence of TB-patients.
Keywords: Diagnostic; IGRA; Interferon-gamma release assay; Oculaire; Ocular tuberculosis; Quantiferon; Tuberculose; Uveitis; Uvéite.
Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.