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, 8 (1), 8904

In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of Electrophoresis-Aided Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Remineralisation System on pH-cycling and Acid-Etching Demineralised Enamel

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In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of Electrophoresis-Aided Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Remineralisation System on pH-cycling and Acid-Etching Demineralised Enamel

Yu Yuan Zhang et al. Sci Rep.

Abstract

Casein phosphate-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), as a remineralisation agent, is extensively used in managing demineralised enamel; however, its remineralisation kinetics is low. This study aimed to improve remineralisation kinetics of CPP-ACP by introducing a rapid remineralisation method with electrophoresis. In vitro, a pH-cycling enamel model was used to test remineralisation potentials of electrophoresis-aided CPP-ACP. For verifying remineralisation potentials of electrophoresis-aided CPP-ACP in vivo in a rabbit model, acid-etched enamel surface on rabbit maxillary incisors was remineralised by electrophoresis-aided CPP-ACP with 1.0 mA (group A) or 0.5 mA (group B). Both in vitro and in vivo, it was observed that electrophoresis was benefit to improve remineralisation kinetics of CPP-ACP, and the demineralised enamel was completely remineralised after 5 h. The Ca/P ratio in remineralised enamel consisted with that of hydroxyapatite, the microstructure in native enamel. Meanwhile, in vivo the micro-hardness of acid-etched enamel in group A (322.55 ± 31.90) and group B (322.55 ± 31.90) recovered up to the value of native enamel after 5 h remineralisation (p > 0.05). The Hematoxylin-eosin stain demonstrated that the electric field used in this study was safe on rabbit dental pulp. Therefore, this efficient and safe method has the potential to be applied in treating enamel deminerlisation.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
SEM micrographs of remineralised enamel in vitro study. (a) Remineralised enamel after 5 h remineralisation in control group; (b) and (c) The magnified micrograph of (a). (d) Remineralsied enamel after 3 h remineralisation in experimental group. (e) The magnified micrograph of (d) (Red line: boundary between new crystal layer (area I) and original enamel (area II)). (f) The magnified micrograph of area II (Rectangle: formed new crystals; arrow: self-growth of demineralised enamel). (g) Remineralsied enamel after 5 h remineralisation in experimental group (h) and (i)The magnified micrograph of (g).
Figure 2
Figure 2
SEM micrographs of acid-etched and remineralised enamel in vivo study. (a) Acid-etched enamel in blank control group. (b) The magnified micrograph of (a). (c) Remineralised enamel after 3 h remineralisation in group A. (d) The magnified micrograph of (c). (e) emineralised enamel after 5 h remineralisation in group A. (f) The magnified micrograph of (e). (g) Remineralised enamel after 3 h remineralisation in group B. (h) The magnified micrograph of (g). (i) Remineralised enamel after 5 h remineralisation in group B. (j) The magnified micrograph of (i).
Figure 3
Figure 3
EDS spectra of the remineralised enamel (a,b) and (c) EDS spectra of the remineralised enamel after 3 h remineralisation in experimental group, group A and group B, respectively (d,e) and (f) EDS spectra of the remineralised enamel after 5 h remineralisation in experimental group, group A and group B, respectively.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Histological section photomicrographs in vivo study. (a,b) Histological photomicrograph after 3 h remineralisation, in group A and group B respectively. (c,d) Histological photomicrograph after 5 h remineralisation, in group A and group B respectively. (e) Histological photomicrograph in blank control group. (fj). The magnified photomicrograph of (ae), respectively.
Figure 5
Figure 5
The model of electrophoresis-aided CPP-ACP remineralisation system in vitro study.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Electrophoresis-aided CPP-ACP remineralisation system on acid-etched rabbit enamel. (a) The plaster working model. (b) The second impression on the plaster model. (c) The frontal view of enamel covered with 37% phosphoric acid. (d) The assembling of electrophoresis-aided CPP-ACP remineralisation system.

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