GUT Microbiome-GUT Dysbiosis-Arterial Hypertension: New Horizons

Curr Hypertens Rev. 2019;15(1):40-46. doi: 10.2174/1573402114666180613080439.


Arterial hypertension is a progressive cardiovascular syndrome arising from complex and interrelated etiologies. The human microbiome refers to the community of microorganisms that live in or on the human body. They influence human physiology by interfering in several processes such as providing nutrients and vitamins in Phase I and Phase II drug metabolism. The human gut microbiota is represented mainly by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and to a lesser degree by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, with each individual harbouring at least 160 such species. Gut microbiota contributes to blood pressure homeostasis and the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension through production, modification, and degradation of a variety of microbial-derived bioactive metabolites. Animal studies and to a lesser degree human research has unmasked relative mechanisms, mainly through the effect of certain microbiome metabolites and their receptors, outlining this relationship. Interventions to utilize these pathways, with probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics and fecal microbiome transplantation have shown promising results. Personalized microbiome-based disease prediction and treatment responsiveness seem futuristic. Undoubtedly, a long way of experimental and clinical research should be pursued to elucidate this novel, intriguing and very promising horizon.

Keywords: Gut microbiome; arterial hypertension; gut flora; microorganisms; prebiotics; probiotics; short chain fatty acids..

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Arterial Pressure* / drug effects
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Bacteria / growth & development*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dysbiosis
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome* / drug effects
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / microbiology*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Intestines / microbiology*
  • Probiotics / therapeutic use
  • Risk Factors


  • Antihypertensive Agents