Cellular Responses in Drosophila melanogaster Following Teratogen Exposure

Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1797:243-276. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7883-0_13.


Studies focusing on the teratogenicity of a series of new chemicals that are produced in a daily basis represent an important focus in toxicological/pharmaceutical research, particularly due to the risks arising from occupational exposure of the subjects. However, the complex mating procedures, scheduling of treatments, requirements for trained personnel, and elevated costs of traditional teratological assays with mammals hamper this type of assessments. Accordingly, the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a model for teratological studies has received considerable attention. Here some general protocols about Drosophila exposure-at different stages of their life cycle-to any chemical with putative teratological activity are presented. Importantly, some details about D. melanogaster embryonic, larval, pupal, or adult endpoints, that can be used to assess teratogenicity using flies as a model organism, are presented.

Keywords: Adult fly; Drosophila melanogaster; Embryonic; Endpoints; Larvae; Methods; Pupa; Teratogenicity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Drosophila melanogaster / drug effects
  • Drosophila melanogaster / embryology*
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / drug effects
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / pathology*
  • Embryonic Development*
  • Female
  • Larva
  • Life Cycle Stages*
  • Male
  • Pupa
  • Reproduction*
  • Teratogens / toxicity*
  • Toxicity Tests / methods*


  • Teratogens