Background: In efficacy trials of a tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV), excess hospitalizations for dengue were observed among vaccine recipients 2 to 5 years of age. Precise risk estimates according to observed dengue serostatus could not be ascertained because of the limited numbers of samples collected at baseline. We developed a dengue anti-nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and used samples from month 13 to infer serostatus for a post hoc analysis of safety and efficacy.
Methods: In a case-cohort study, we reanalyzed data from three efficacy trials. For the principal analyses, we used baseline serostatus determined on the basis of measured (when baseline values were available) or imputed (when baseline values were missing) titers from a 50% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT50), with imputation conducted with the use of covariates that included the month 13 anti-NS1 assay results. The risk of hospitalization for virologically confirmed dengue (VCD), of severe VCD, and of symptomatic VCD according to dengue serostatus was estimated by weighted Cox regression and targeted minimum loss-based estimation.
Results: Among dengue-seronegative participants 2 to 16 years of age, the cumulative 5-year incidence of hospitalization for VCD was 3.06% among vaccine recipients and 1.87% among controls, with a hazard ratio (vaccine vs. control) through data cutoff of 1.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 2.70). Among dengue-seronegative participants 9 to 16 years of age, the cumulative incidence of hospitalization for VCD was 1.57% among vaccine recipients and 1.09% among controls, with a hazard ratio of 1.41 (95% CI, 0.74 to 2.68). Similar trends toward a higher risk among seronegative vaccine recipients than among seronegative controls were also found for severe VCD. Among dengue-seropositive participants 2 to 16 years of age and those 9 to 16 years of age, the cumulative incidence of hospitalization for VCD was 0.75% and 0.38%, respectively, among vaccine recipients and 2.47% and 1.88% among controls, with hazard ratios of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.23 to 0.45) and 0.21 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.31). The risk of severe VCD was also lower among seropositive vaccine recipients than among seropositive controls.
Conclusions: CYD-TDV protected against severe VCD and hospitalization for VCD for 5 years in persons who had exposure to dengue before vaccination, and there was evidence of a higher risk of these outcomes in vaccinated persons who had not been exposed to dengue. (Funded by Sanofi Pasteur; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00842530 , NCT01983553 , NCT01373281 , and NCT01374516 .).