Discrete particle model for cement infiltration within open-cell structures: Prevention of osteoporotic fracture

PLoS One. 2018 Jun 13;13(6):e0199035. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199035. eCollection 2018.


This paper proposes a discrete particle model based on the random-walk theory for simulating cement infiltration within open-cell structures to prevent osteoporotic proximal femur fractures. Model parameters consider the cement viscosity (high and low) and the desired direction of injection (vertical and diagonal). In vitro and in silico characterizations of augmented open-cell structures validated the computational model and quantified the improved mechanical properties (Young's modulus) of the augmented specimens. The cement injection pattern was successfully predicted in all the simulated cases. All the augmented specimens exhibited enhanced mechanical properties computationally and experimentally (maximum improvements of 237.95 ± 12.91% and 246.85 ± 35.57%, respectively). The open-cell structures with high porosity fraction showed a considerable increase in mechanical properties. Cement augmentation in low porosity fraction specimens resulted in a lesser increase in mechanical properties. The results suggest that the proposed discrete particle model is adequate for use as a femoroplasty planning framework.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bone Cements / therapeutic use*
  • Compressive Strength
  • Elastic Modulus
  • Humans
  • Models, Theoretical*
  • Osteoporotic Fractures / prevention & control*
  • Porosity
  • Viscosity


  • Bone Cements

Grant support

The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through research project DPI 2014-53401-C2-1-R and the European Research Council (ERC) through project ERC-2012-stg306751. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.