A Review of Current Concepts of the Etiology and Treatment of Myopia

Eye Contact Lens. 2018 Jul;44(4):231-247. doi: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000499.


Myopia occurs in more than 50% of the population in many industrialized countries and is expected to increase; complications associated with axial elongation from myopia are the sixth leading cause of blindness. Thus, understanding its etiology, epidemiology, and the results of various treatment regiments may modify current care and result in a reduction in morbidity from progressive myopia. This rapid increase cannot be explained by genetics alone. Current animal and human research demonstrates that myopia development is a result of the interplay between genetic and the environmental factors. The prevalence of myopia is higher in individuals whose both parents are myopic, suggesting that genetic factors are clearly involved in myopia development. At the same time, population studies suggest that development of myopia is associated with education and the amount time spent doing near work; hence, activities increase the exposure to optical blur. Recently, there has been an increase in efforts to slow the progression of myopia because of its relationship to the development of serious pathological conditions such as macular degeneration, retinal detachments, glaucoma, and cataracts. We reviewed meta-analysis and other of current treatments that include: atropine, progressive addition spectacle lenses, orthokeratology, and multifocal contact lenses.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Atropine / therapeutic use
  • Contact Lenses
  • Disease Progression
  • Eyeglasses
  • Humans
  • Muscarinic Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Mydriatics / therapeutic use
  • Myopia / epidemiology
  • Myopia / etiology*
  • Myopia / prevention & control
  • Myopia / therapy*
  • Orthokeratologic Procedures / methods
  • Recreation


  • Muscarinic Antagonists
  • Mydriatics
  • Atropine