Pharmacokinetics of Co-Suspension Delivery Technology Budesonide/Glycopyrronium/Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate (BGF MDI) and Budesonide/Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate (BFF MDI) Fixed-Dose Combinations Compared With an Active Control: A Phase 1, Randomized, Single-Dose, Crossover Study in Healthy Adults

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2019 Feb;8(2):223-233. doi: 10.1002/cpdd.585. Epub 2018 Jun 14.


This randomized, phase 1, single-dose, crossover study (NCT02189304) compared the 12-hour pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profiles of budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI) 320/14.4/10 μg and budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate (BFF) MDI 320/10 μg (both formulated using innovative co-suspension delivery technology) to an active comparator (budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate dry powder inhaler [BUD/FORM DPI] 320/9-μg delivered dose) in healthy adults. The potential for PK interaction between glycopyrronium and budesonide/formoterol within BGF MDI was assessed. Of 72 subjects randomized, 59 completed treatment. Systemic budesonide exposure (primary objective) based on area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve 0-12 hours (AUC0-12 ; % coefficient of variation) was 1598.38 (49.7), 1657.09 (50.4), and 1276.75 (70.4) pg·h/mL for BGF MDI, BFF MDI, and BUD/FORM DPI, respectively; and formoterol exposure (AUC0-12 [% coefficient of variation]) was 39.16 (45.9), 39.53 (40.5), and 23.24 (59.2) pg·h/mL, respectively. BGF MDI and BFF MDI were bioequivalent for budesonide and formoterol. All treatments were well tolerated. While systemic exposure to budesonide and formoterol was higher for BGF MDI and BFF MDI than for BUD/FORM DPI, there were no appreciable differences in the incidence of pharmacologically predictable adverse events. This, coupled with the absence of PK interactions, suggests the BGF MDI safety profile will be comparable to BUD/FORM DPI.

Keywords: COPD; co-suspension delivery technology; fixed-dose combination; metered dose inhaler; pharmacokinetics.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Adult
  • Area Under Curve
  • Budesonide / administration & dosage
  • Budesonide / pharmacokinetics*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Drug Combinations
  • Drug Interactions
  • Female
  • Formoterol Fumarate / administration & dosage
  • Formoterol Fumarate / pharmacokinetics*
  • Glycopyrrolate / administration & dosage
  • Glycopyrrolate / pharmacokinetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metered Dose Inhalers
  • Middle Aged
  • Therapeutic Equivalency
  • Young Adult


  • Drug Combinations
  • Budesonide
  • Glycopyrrolate
  • Formoterol Fumarate

Associated data