Mitochondria are dynamic bioenergetic organelles whose maintenance requires around 1500 proteins from two genomes. Mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genome can disrupt a plethora of cellular metabolic and homoeostatic functions. Mitochondrial diseases represent one of the most common and severe groups of inherited genetic disorders, characterised by clinical, biochemical, and genetic heterogeneity, diagnostic odysseys, and absence of disease-modifying curative therapies. This Review aims to discuss recent advances in mitochondrial biology and medicine arising from widespread use of high-throughput omics technologies, and also includes a broad discussion of emerging therapies for mitochondrial disease. New insights into both bioenergetic and biosynthetic mitochondrial functionalities have expedited the genetic diagnosis of primary mitochondrial disorders, and identified novel mitochondrial pathomechanisms and new targets for therapeutic intervention. As we enter this new era of mitochondrial medicine, underpinned by global unbiased approaches and multifaceted investigation of mitochondrial function, omics technologies will continue to shed light on unresolved mitochondrial questions, paving the way for improved outcomes for patients with mitochondrial diseases.
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