This study reviews 39 cases of anogenital bowenoid papulosis lesions in 22 individuals of both sexes that were analyzed clinically, histologically, immunocytochemically, and virologically. Macroscopically, three different types of lesions were demonstrated: erythematous macules; papules (lichenoid and/or pigmented papules); and leukoplakialike lesions. Microscopically, bowenoid papulosis fulfills the criteria of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ. Much like oral precancers, three distinct growth patterns (flat, endophytic, and exophytic) could be differentiated, which did not correlate with the clinical aspect of the lesions. In only two (5.12%) of the 39 cases of bowenoid papulosis could structural antigens of papillomaviruses be detected immunocytochemically (peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique). The DNA from 12 lesions that were analyzed for the presence of papillomavirus-specific sequences hybridized stringently in all cases with the human papillomavirus 16 specific DNA probe labeled with phosphorus 32.