Polymeric nanoparticles were modified to exert antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria. Nanoparticles were loaded with calcium, zinc and doxycycline. Ions and doxycycline release were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and high performance liquid chromatography. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Lactobacillus lactis, Streptoccocus mutans, gordonii and sobrinus were grown and the number of bacteria was determined by optical density. Nanoparticles were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 10, 1 and 0.1 mg/mL and incubated with 1.0 mL of each bacterial suspension for 3, 12, and 24 h. The bacterial viability was assessed by determining their ability to cleave the tetrazolium salt to a formazan dye. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe’s F (p < 0.05). Doxycycline doping efficacy was 70%. A burst liberation effect was produced during the first 7 days. After 21 days, a sustained release above 6 µg/mL, was observed. Calcium and zinc liberation were about 1 and 0.02 µg/mL respectively. The most effective antibacterial material was found to be the Dox-Nanoparticles (60% to 99% reduction) followed by Ca-Nanoparticles or Zn-Nanoparticles (30% to 70% reduction) and finally the non-doped nanoparticles (7% to 35% reduction). P. gingivalis, S. mutans and L. lactis were the most susceptible bacteria, being S. gordonii and S. sobrinus the most resistant to the tested nanoparticles.
Keywords: antibacterial; calcium; doxycycline; nanoparticles; zinc.