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, 8 (1), 9135

The Effects of Printing Orientation on the Electrochemical Behaviour of 3D Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)/carbon Black Electrodes

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The Effects of Printing Orientation on the Electrochemical Behaviour of 3D Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)/carbon Black Electrodes

Hairul Hisham Bin Hamzah et al. Sci Rep.

Abstract

Additive manufacturing also known as 3D printing is being utilised in electrochemistry to reproducibly develop complex geometries with conductive properties. In this study, we explored if the electrochemical behavior of 3D printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)/carbon black electrodes was influenced by printing direction. The electrodes were printed in both horizontal and vertical directions. The horizsontal direction resulted in a smooth surface (HPSS electrode) and a comparatively rougher surface (HPRS electrode) surface. Electrodes were characterized using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry. For various redox couples, the vertical printed (VP) electrode showed enhanced current response when compared the two electrode surfaces generated by horizontal print direction. No differences in the capacitive response was observed, indicating that the conductive surface area of all types of electrodes were identical. The VP electrode had reduced charge transfer resistance and uncompensated solution resistance when compared to the HPSS and HPRS electrodes. Overall, electrodes printed in a vertical direction provide enhanced electrochemical performance and our study indicates that print orientation is a key factor that can be used to enhance sensor performance.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
3D printed electrodes. (A) shows the approach in which the horizontal and vertical print of the ABS/carbon black material was used to generate vertical printed (VP), horizontal printed smooth surface (HPSS) and horizontal printed rough surface (HPRS) electrodes. The cross section of the electrode is shown on the right. (B) Photographs of 3D printed carbon black/ABS electrodes showing electrodes printed vertically and horizontally.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Cyclic voltammetric responses on the printed electrodes. Voltammograms of glassy carbon (GC), vertical printed (VP), horizontal printed rough surface (HPRS) and horizontal printed smooth surface (HPSS) electrodes for (A) 1 mM ferrocene carboxylic acid in 0.1 M NaOH and (D) 1 mM serotonin hydrochloric acid in tris buffered saline (0.05 M tris and 0.15 M NaCl), measured at a scan rate of 100 mV/s. Responses of (B) anodic peak current normalised to electrode surface area (ipa) and (C) anodic peak potential (Epa) for 1 mM ferrocene carboxylic acid. (E) anodic peak current normalised to electrode surface area (ipa) and (F) anodic peak potential (Epa) for 1 mM serotonin hydrochloric acid. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc Tukey test. Data are shown as mean ± S.D., n = 4, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Determination of the double layer capacitance (Cdl) between the printed electrodes. (A–C) shows cyclic voltammograms at 30 mV/s to 250 mV/s and (D–F) shows Nyquist plots for the VP, HPRS and HPSS electrodes. CVs were measured in 1 M KCl from 0 to 1.1 V vs Ag/AgCl. The EIS measurements were made on a frequency range from 100 kHz to 0.1 Hz, using a modulation amplitude of 5 mV. (G) shows plots of Δi vs 2 V for VP, HPRS and HPSS electrodes in order to determine the Cdl. (H) shows comparisons of the Cdl when normalised to the electrode surface area of the three-printed electrodes. Statistical analyses were performed using two-way ANOVA. Data shown as mean ± S.D., n = 4.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Determination of charge transfer and solution resistance. (A) Nyquist representations of the impedance spectra at ~0.6 V vs Ag|AgCl in 10 mM of K4[Fe(CN)6]/K3[Fe(CN)6] in 1 M KCl for VP, HPRS and HPSS electrodes. The measurements were made at a frequency range from 100 kHz to 0.1 Hz with a modulation amplitude of 5 mV. (B) shows a comparison of the charge transfer resistance (Rct), determined by EIS fitting analysis and (C) is a comparison of the uncompensated solution resistance (Rs), also determined from EIS fitting analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey test. Data are shown as mean ± S.D., n = 4, *P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.001.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Chronoamperograms for V, HR and HS (A) on the oxidation of 1 mM ferrocyanide in 1 M KCl by stepping potential from 0 to 1.2 V vs Ag/AgCl for 1 s. (B) shows a comparison of the RC time constant, calculated from plots of lni vs t. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey test. Data are shown as mean ± S.D., n = 4, *P < 0.05 vs vertical surface.

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