Background: Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been extensively reported to possess a wide range of beneficial properties in multiple tissue damage. Previous studies have shown that exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue associates with oxidative stress injury, inflammatory response, and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-fatigue effects of GSPE in mice and explore its possible underlying mechanism.
Design: The mouse model of exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue was established by using the forced swimming test, and GSPE was orally treated for successive 28 days at 0, 1, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day of body weight, designated the control, GSPE-L, GSPE-M and GSPE-H groups, respectively.
Results: The presented results showed that treatment of GSPE at a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg/day of body weight significantly relieved exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue, indicated by increasing the forced swimming time. In addition, treatment of GSPE significantly improved the creatine phosphokinase and lactic dehydrogenase, as well as lactic acid level in exhaustive swimming. For underlying mechanisms, treatment of GSPE had anti-fatigue effects by promoting antioxidant ability and resisting oxidative effect, as represented by increased total antioxidative capability levels, enhanced superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and ameliorated malondialdehyde levels. Furthermore, treatment of GSPE significantly inhibited the activity of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, which suggested that its protective effects on exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue may be attributed to inhibition of inflammatory response. Last but not the least, treatment of GSPE significantly improved succinate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+-ATPase levels to enhance mitochondrial function during exhaustive swimming-induced fatigue.
Conclusions: These results proved that treatment of GSPE possessed the beneficial properties of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and mitochondrial protection to improve exhaustive exercise, which suggested that GSPE could be used as an effective functional food to delay fatigue.
Keywords: GSPE; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; exhaustive exercise; fatigue; mitochondria.