Meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the effect of low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) on renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes. An extensive literature search was conducted on scientific databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library until September 2017. Only controlled trials on human subjects written in English were included in this meta-analysis. Several markers of renal function were compared between subjects who adopted an LCD or control diet, including estimated glomerular filtration rate, creatinine clearance, urinary albumin, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid. Random effect model was used in the analysis of each marker. In this meta-analysis, 12 controlled trials were selected, which involved 942 participants (500 received LCD and 442 received a control diet). The pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) of estimated glomerular filtration rate from LCD vs control diet was not different (pooled SMD: 0.26; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.55; P = .08). Investigation on creatinine clearance also showed no significant difference (pooled SMD: 0.51; 95% CI, -0.38 to 1.40; P = .26). Other comparisons from urinary albumin (pooled SMD: -0.04; 95% CI, -0.75 to 0.67; P = .90), serum creatinine (pooled SMD: -0.57; 95% CI, -1.51 to 0.38; P = .24), and serum uric acid (pooled SMD: -0.86; 95% CI, -4.00 to 2.28; P = .59) also showed no significant difference in the results. In the present meta-analysis, no effect on markers of renal function was found after provision of a LCD compared with a control diet in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: creatinine clearance; estimated glomerular filtration rate; low-carbohydrate diet; renal function; type 2 diabetes mellitus.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.