Incidence, timing, and type of first and recurrent ischemic events in patients with and without peripheral artery disease after an acute coronary syndrome

Am Heart J. 2018 Jul;201:25-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2018.03.013. Epub 2018 Mar 28.


Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are known to have an increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular events. However, the influence of concomitant PAD on first and subsequent recurrent ischemic events after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains poorly characterized.

Methods: We analyzed the combined data set from 4 randomized trials (PLATO, APPRAISE-2, TRA-CER, and TRILOGY ACS) in ACS for a follow-up length of 1 year. Using multivariable regression, we examined the association between PAD and major adverse cardiovascular events, a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Among patients with a nonfatal first event, we evaluated the incidence and type of a second recurrent event.

Results: A total of 4,098 of 48,094 (8.5%) post-ACS patients had a history of PAD. The unadjusted frequency of major adverse cardiovascular events was 2-fold higher in patients with PAD (14.3% vs 7.5%) over a median (25th-75th) follow-up of 353 (223-365) days with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.63 (95% CI: 1.48-1.78; P < .001). The frequency of recurrent ischemic events among those patients with a first, nonfatal event was higher among those with PAD (40.0% vs 27.7%). The relative frequency of each event type (cardiovascular death, noncardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) within first and subsequent ischemic events was similar regardless of PAD status at baseline.

Conclusions: Patients with PAD have a significantly higher risk of first and recurrent ischemic events in the post-ACS setting. These findings highlight the opportunity for improved treatments in patients with PAD who experience an ACS.

Trial registration: NCT00391872 NCT00831441 NCT00527943 NCT00699998.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / complications*
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / therapy
  • Aged
  • Brain Ischemia / epidemiology*
  • Brain Ischemia / etiology
  • Cause of Death / trends
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology*
  • Myocardial Infarction / etiology
  • Myocardial Revascularization / methods*
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease / complications*
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease / therapy
  • Prognosis
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate / trends
  • Sweden / epidemiology
  • Thrombolytic Therapy / methods*
  • Time Factors
  • United States / epidemiology

Associated data