Arabidopsis phospholipase Dα1 and Dδ oppositely modulate EDS1- and SA-independent basal resistance against adapted powdery mildew

J Exp Bot. 2018 Jun 27;69(15):3675-3688. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery146.


Plants use a tightly regulated immune system to fight off various pathogens. Phospholipase D (PLD) and its product, phosphatidic acid, have been shown to influence plant immunity; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis mutants pldα1 and pldδ, respectively, exhibited enhanced resistance and enhanced susceptibility to both well-adapted and poorly adapted powdery mildew pathogens, and a virulent oomycete pathogen, indicating that PLDα1 negatively while PLDδ positively modulates post-penetration resistance. The pldα1δ double mutant showed a similar infection phenotype to pldα1, genetically placing PLDα1 downstream of PLDδ. Detailed genetic analyses of pldδ with mutations in genes for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis (SID2) and/or signaling (EDS1 and PAD4), measurement of SA and jasmonic acid (JA) levels, and expression of their respective reporter genes indicate that PLDδ contributes to basal resistance independent of EDS1/PAD4, SA, and JAsignaling. Interestingly, while PLDα1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was mainly found in the tonoplast before and after haustorium invasion, PLDδ-eGFP's focal accumulation to the plasma membrane around the fungal penetration site appeared to be suppressed by adapted powdery mildew. Together, our results demonstrate that PLDα1 and PLDδ oppositely modulate basal, post-penetration resistance against powdery mildew through a non-canonical mechanism that is independent of EDS1/PAD4, SA, and JA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / enzymology*
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / immunology
  • Arabidopsis / microbiology
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • Ascomycota / physiology*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Phospholipase D / economics
  • Phospholipase D / genetics
  • Phospholipase D / metabolism*
  • Plant Diseases / immunology*
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology
  • Plant Immunity
  • Salicylic Acid / metabolism*


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • EDS1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • phospholipase D delta
  • PLDA1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Phospholipase D
  • Salicylic Acid