Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion is a multistep process that involves a spectrum of interactions that are not well characterized. We have characterized a 113-kDa immunogenic protein, PF3D7_1431400 (PF14_0293), that possesses coiled-coil structures. The protein is localized on the surfaces of both merozoites and gametocytes, hence the name Plasmodium falciparum surface-related antigen (PfSRA). The processed 32-kDa fragment of PfSRA binds normal human erythrocytes with different sensitivities to enzyme treatments. Temporal imaging from initial attachment to internalization of viable merozoites revealed that a fragment of PfSRA, along with PfMSP119, is internalized after invasion. Moreover, parasite growth inhibition assays showed that PfSRA P1 antibodies potently inhibited erythrocyte invasion of both sialic acid-dependent and -independent parasite strains. Also, immunoepidemiological studies show that malaria-infected populations have naturally acquired antibodies against PfSRA. Overall, the results demonstrate that PfSRA has the structural and functional characteristics of a very promising target for vaccine development.