Background: N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is a non-human red-meat-derived sialic acid immunogenic to humans. Neu5Gc can be metabolically incorporated into glycan chains on human endothelial and epithelial surfaces. This represents the first example of a "xeno-autoantigen", against which circulating human "xeno-autoantibodies" can react. The resulting inflammation ("xenosialitis") has been demonstrated in human-like Neu5Gc-deficient mice and contributed to carcinoma progression via antibody-mediated inflammation. Anti-Neu5Gc antibodies have potential as biomarkers for diseases associated with red meat consumption such as carcinomas, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes.
Methods: ELISA assays measured antibodies against Neu5Gc or Neu5Gc-glycans in plasma or serum samples from the Nurses' Health Studies, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, including inter-assay reproducibility, stability with delayed sample processing, and within-person reproducibility over 1-3 years in archived samples. We also assessed associations between antibody levels and coronary artery disease risk (CAD) or red meat intake. A glycan microarray was used to detected antibodies against multiple Neu5Gc-glycan epitopes. A nested case-control study design assessed the association between total anti-Neu5Gc antibodies detected in the glycan array assay and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).
Results: ELISA assays showed a wide range of anti-Neu5Gc responses and good inter-assay reproducibility, stability with delayed sample processing, and within-person reproducibility over time, but these antibody levels did not correlate with CAD risk or red meat intake. Antibodies against Neu5Gc alone or against individual Neu5Gc-bearing epitopes were also not associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, a sialoglycan microarray study demonstrated positive association with CRC risk when the total antibody responses against all Neu5Gc-glycans were combined. Individuals in the top quartile of total anti-Neu5Gc IgG antibody concentrations had nearly three times the risk compared to those in the bottom quartile (Multivariate Odds Ratio comparing top to bottom quartile: 2.98, 95% CI: 0.80, 11.1; P for trend = 0.02).
Conclusions: Further work harnessing the utility of these anti-Neu5Gc antibodies as biomarkers in red meat-associated diseases must consider diversity in individual antibody profiles against different Neu5Gc-bearing glycans. Traditional ELISA assays for antibodies directed against Neu5Gc alone, or against specific Neu5Gc-glycans may not be adequate to define risk associations. Our finding of a positive association of total anti-Neu5Gc antibodies with CRC risk also warrants confirmation in larger prospective studies.