Type 2 DNA topoisomerases (Top2) are critical components of key protein complexes involved in DNA replication, chromosome condensation and segregation, as well as gene transcription. The Top2 were found to be the main targets of anticancer agents, leading to intensive efforts to understand their functional and physiological role as well as their molecular structure. Post-translational modifications have been reported to influence Top2 enzyme activities in particular those of the mammalian Top2α isoform. In this study, we identified phosphorylation, and for the first time, acetylation sites in the human Top2α isoform produced in eukaryotic expression systems. Structural analysis revealed that acetylation sites are clustered on the catalytic domains of the homodimer while phosphorylation sites are located in the C-terminal domain responsible for nuclear localization. Biochemical analysis of the eukaryotic-specific K168 residue in the ATPase domain shows that acetylation affects a key position regulating ATP hydrolysis through the modulation of dimerization. Our findings suggest that acetylation of specific sites involved in the allosteric regulation of human Top2 may provide a mechanism for modulation of its catalytic activity.