Rhinovirus (RV) infections are major triggers of acute exacerbations of severe respiratory diseases such as pre-school wheeze, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The occurrence of numerous RV types is a major challenge for the identification of the culprit virus types and for the improvement of virus type-specific treatment strategies. Here, we develop a chip containing 130 different micro-arrayed RV proteins and peptides and demonstrate in a cohort of 120 pre-school children, most of whom had been hospitalized due to acute wheeze, that it is possible to determine the culprit RV species with a minute blood sample by serology. Importantly, we identify RV-A and RV-C species as giving rise to most severe respiratory symptoms. Thus, we have generated a chip for the serological identification of RV-induced respiratory illness which should be useful for the rational development of preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting the most important RV types.