Background: Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a novel marker for colorectal adenocarcinomas but little is known about its expression in appendiceal adenocarcinomas. We aim to investigate SATB2 in these tumors and colorectal adenocarcinomas with comparison to CDX2.
Methods: Immunohistochemical stains for SATB2 and CDX2 were performed in 49 appendiceal adenocarcinomas (23 conventional, 26 adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids (AdexGCCs)) and 57 colorectal adenocarcinomas. Their expression was correlated with tumor differentiation and growth patterns.
Results: SATB2 staining was positive in 26/26 (100%) appendiceal AdexGCCs and 15/23 (65%) appendiceal conventional adenocarcinomas (P = 0.001). Their mean percentage of SATB2-positive cells was 93% and 34%, respectively (P < 0.0001). CDX2 staining was seen in 26/26 (100%) AdexGCCs and 22/23 (96%) appendiceal conventional adenocarcinomas (P = 0.4694). SATB2 and CDX2 showed similar staining in AdexGCCs but CDX2 labeled more tumor cells than SATB2 in conventional adenocarcinomas (mean 84% vs. 34%, P < 0.0001). SATB2 and CDX2 staining was seen in 82% (47/57) and 96% (55/57) colorectal adenocarcinomas, respectively (P = 0.01). The mean percentage of cells positive for SATB2 and CDX2 was 48% and 91%, respectively (P < 0.00001). Decreased SATB2 immunoreactivity was associated with non-glandular differentiation particularly signet ring cells in colorectal (P = 0.001) and appendiceal conventional adenocarcinomas (P = 0.04) but not in appendiceal AdexGCCs.
Conclusions: SATB2 is a highly sensitive marker for appendiceal AdexGCCs with similar sensitivity as CDX2. In colorectal and appendiceal conventional adenocarcinomas, SATB2 is not as sensitive as CDX2 and its immunoreactivity is dependent on tumor differentiation.
Keywords: Adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoid; Appendiceal adenocarcinoma; CDX2; Colorectal adenocarcinoma; SATB2.