Cytoreductive Surgery and Normothermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Signet Ring Cell Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma With Peritoneal Metastases in the Setting of Cirrhosis

Gastroenterology Res. 2018 Jun;11(3):247-251. doi: 10.14740/gr1029w. Epub 2018 May 31.


Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) are combined to treat peritoneal surface malignancies (PSM). The objective of cytoreduction is to eradicate macroscopic disease, while HIPEC addresses residual microscopic disease. Currently, there are no protocols guiding treatment of cirrhotic patients with PSM. We report the case of a cirrhotic patient with signet ring cell (SRC) appendiceal adenocarcinoma who underwent normothermic, as opposed to hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC). A 50-year-old woman with compensated class A cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B and C underwent a right hemicolectomy in 2007 and adjuvant chemotherapy in 2008 for appendiceal SRC adenocarcinoma. In 2011, she was found to have peritoneal disease after a laparotomy. She subsequently experienced intolerance to chemotherapy, with stable disease on serial restaging. In light of her cirrhosis, the decision was made to perform CRS and IPC without hyperthermia to treat her residual disease. In 2012, she underwent CRS (omentectomy, total abdominal hysterectomy, left salpingo-oophorectomy) and IPC with mitomycin C. Thirty-day postoperative morbidity included delayed abdominal closure (Clavien-Dindo Grade IIIb), prolonged ventilator support (IIIa), vasopressor requirements (II), and confusion (II). The patient's liver function remained stable. Eight months later, she had evidence of recurrence on computed tomography. Twenty-two months later, she developed an extrinsic compression secondary to evolving disease, requiring a palliative endoscopic stent. The patient expired from her disease 29 months after her CRS and IPC. The criteria guiding selection of suitable candidates for CRS continues to evolve. Concomitant compensated cirrhosis in patients with PSM should not constitute a reason independently to exclude CRS with intraperitoneal chemotherapy, given the oncologic benefits of the procedure.

Keywords: Cirrhosis; Cytoreductive surgery; Intraperitoneal chemotherapy; Peritoneal surface malignancy.

Publication types

  • Case Reports