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Oncolytic Sendai Virus Therapy of Canine Mast Cell Tumors (A Pilot Study)

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Oncolytic Sendai Virus Therapy of Canine Mast Cell Tumors (A Pilot Study)

Galina V Ilyinskaya et al. Front Vet Sci.

Abstract

Background: Canine mastocytomas (mast cell tumors) represent a common malignancy among many dog breeds. A typical treatment strategy for canine mastocytomas includes surgery, chemo- and radio-therapy, although in many cases the therapy fails and the disease progression resumes. New treatment approaches are needed. Aims: The goal of this pilot study was to examine safety and efficacy of oncolytic Sendai virus therapy administered to canine patients with cutaneous or subcutaneous mastocytomas. Materials and Methods: Six canine patients, with variable grades and stages of the disease, received virus therapy, either as a monotherapy, or in combination with surgery. The therapy included two or more virus applications administered weekly or biweekly. Each application of Sendai virus (107-108.6 EID50) consisted of multiple individual 0.01-0.1 ml injections delivered intratumorally, intradermally around a tumor, and under a tumor bed. Results: The treatment was well tolerated, with minor transitory side effects. Of the six dogs, two did not receive surgery or any other treatment besides the virus injections. The other four animals underwent radical or debulking surgeries, and in three of them the subsequent administration of Sendai virus completely cleared locally recurrent or/and remaining tumor masses. Five dogs demonstrated a complete response to the treatment, the animals remained disease free during the time of observation (2-3 years). One dog responded only partially to the virotherapy; its after-surgical recurrent tumor and some, but not all, metastases were cleared. This dog had the most advanced stage of the disease with multiple enlarged lymph nodes and cutaneous metastases. Conclusion: The results of the pilot study suggest that Sendai virus injections could be safe and efficient for the treatment of dogs affected by mastocytomas.They also suggest the need of further studies for finding optimal schemes and schedules for this kind of therapy.

Keywords: MCT; Sendai virus; canine mastocytoma; mast cell tumor; oncolytic virus; virotherapy.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Oncolytic Sendai virus MCT treatments results (Cases 1 and 2). Case 1. Male dog of mixed breed of 7 years old was presented with cutaneous, ulcerated, and poorly differentiated mastocytoma (35 mm diameter) located near his anus. The tumor stage was not assigned. (1) Primary tumor before any treatment; (2) MCT site, 2 weeks after the first virus treatment; (3) MCT site, 4 weeks after the first virus treatment. Case 2. Male German shorthaired pointer of 9 years old was presented with subcutaneous, regional (stage 2) intermediately differentiated mastocytoma. The primary tumor was excised without clean margins (is not shown). (1) MCT secondary growth 1 week after the surgical procedure; (2) MCT site, 2 weeks after the first virus treatment; (3) MCT site, 5 weeks after the first virus treatment.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Oncolytic Sendai virus MCT treatments results (Cases 3 and 4). Case 3. Male dog of mixed breed of 10 years old was presented with subcutaneous, distant (stage 4) poorly differentiated MCT located on abdomen with multiple palpable metastases. A debulking surgery has been performed. (1) Primary tumor before surgery (120 mm in diameter); (2) MCT secondary growth along the surgical scar, 4 days after the surgery; (3) MCT site, 1 week after the first viral treatment; (4) MCT site, 4 weeks after the first virus treatment. Case 4. Female dog of mixed breed of 8.5 years old was presented with cutaneous, local (stage 1) intermediately differentiated MCT. (1) Primary tumor (35 mm in diameter) before any treatment; (2) MCT site after complete surgical removal with at least 5 mm clean margins; (3) MCT relapse, 6 weeks after the surgery; (4) MCT site, 1 week after the first viral treatment; (5) MCT site, 2 weeks after the first virus treatment.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Oncolytic Sendai virus MCT treatments results (Cases 5 and 6). Case 5. Female dog of mixed breed of 13 years old was presented with cutaneous intermediately differentiated inter-digital mass of 15 mm. The disease stage was not assigned. (1) Inter-digital MCT, 1 week after prednisone injection and before a surgery; (2) MCT site after debulking surgery and 1 month after final virus treatment. Case 6. Male golden retriever of 3 years old was presented with cutaneous well differentiated MCT (20 mm in diameter) in the abdominal region. The disease stage was not assigned. (1) MCT (mildly inflamed with ulceration at its center) before the viral treatment; (2) MCT site 2 weeks after the first viral treatment; (3) MCT site 6 weeks after the first viral treatment.

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