Background: Goblet cell carcinoids (GCCs) of the appendix are rare mucinous neoplasms, for which optimal therapy is poorly described. We examined prognostic clinical and treatment factors in a population-based cohort.
Methods: Patients diagnosed with GCC from 1984 to 2014 were identified from the British Columbia Cancer Agency and the Vancouver Lower Mainland Pathology Archive.
Results: Of 88 cases with confirmed appendiceal GCCs, clinical data were available in 86 cases (annual population incidence: 0.66/1,000,000). Median age was 54 years (range 25-91) and 42 patients (49%) were male. Metastasis at presentation was the strongest predictor of overall survival (OS), with median OS not reached for stage I-III patients, and measuring 16.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 9.1-29] for stage IV patients. In 67 stage I-III patients, 51 (76%) underwent completion hemicolectomy and 9 (17%) received adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. No appendicitis at initial presentation and Tang B histology were the only prognostic factors, with inferior 5-year recurrence-free survival (53 vs. 83% with appendicitis, p = 0.02; 45% Tang B vs. 89% Tang A, p < 0.01). Of 19 stage IV patients, 10 (62.5%) received 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy and 11 (61%) underwent multiorgan resection (MOR) ± hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Low mitotic rate and MOR ± HIPEC were associated with improved 2-year OS, but only MOR ± HIPEC remained significant on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 5.4, 95% CI 1.4-20.9; p = 0.015).
Conclusions: In this population-based cohort, we demonstrate excellent survival outcomes in stage I-III appendiceal GCCs and clinical appendicitis. Hemicolectomy remains the standard treatment. In metastatic disease, outcomes remain poor, although MOR ± HIPEC may improve survival.