Purpose of review: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication after total joint replacement. A main source for antibiotic tolerance and treatment failure is bacterial production of biofilm-a resilient barrier against antibiotics, immune system, and mechanical debridement. The purpose of this review is to explore some novel approaches to treat PJI and biofilm-related infections.
Recent findings: Innovative treatment strategies of bacterial and biofilm infections revolve around (a) augmenting current therapies, such as improving the delivery and efficiency of conventional antibiotics and enhancing the efficacy of antiseptics and (b) administrating completely new therapeutic modalities, such as using immunotherapy, nanoparticles, lytic bacteriophages, photodynamic therapy, novel antibiotics, and antimicrobial peptides. Several promising treatment strategies for PJI are available to be tested further. The next requirement for most of the novel treatments is reproducing their effects in clinically representative animal models of PJI against clinical isolates of relevant bacteria.
Keywords: Antibiotic conjugation; Antimicrobial peptides; Monoclonal antibodies; Nanoparticles; Periprosthetic joint infection; Phage therapy.