Non-plaque-induced Gingival Diseases

J Clin Periodontol. 2018 Jun;45 Suppl 20:S28-S43. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12938.


While plaque-induced gingivitis is one of the most common human inflammatory diseases, several non-plaque-induced gingival diseases are less common but often of major significance for patients. The non-plaque-induced gingival lesions are often manifestations of systemic conditions, but they may also represent pathologic changes limited to gingival tissues. A classification is proposed, based on the etiology of the lesions and includes: Genetic/Developmental disorders; Specific infections; Inflammatory and immune conditions and lesions; Reactive processes; Neoplasms; Endocrine, Nutritional and metabolic diseases; Traumatic lesions; and Gingival pigmentation.

Keywords: classification; diagnosis oral; epulis; gingiva; gingival diseases; immunological; inflammation; mouth mucosa; oral manifestations; oral medicine; periodontal disease; rare diseases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Gingiva
  • Gingival Diseases*
  • Gingivitis*
  • Humans