Genetic polymorphisms and diversity of BoLA-DRB3.2 are essential because of DRB3 gene's function in innate immunity and its association with infectious diseases resistance or tolerance in cattle. The present study was aimed at assessing the level of genetic diversity of DRB3 in the exon 2 (BoLA-DRB3.2) region in African, American and Asian cattle breeds. Amplification of exon 2 in 174 cattle revealed 15 haplotypes. The breeds with the highest number of haplotypes were Brangus (10), Sokoto Gudali (10) and Dajal (9), while the lowest number of haplotypes were found in Holstein and Sahiwal with 4 haplotypes each. Medium Joining network obtained from haplotypic data showed that all haplotypes condensed around a centric area and each sequence (except in H-3, H-51 and H-106) representing almost a specific haplotype. The BoLA-DRB3.2 sequence analyses revealed a non-significant higher rate of non-synonymous (dN) compared to synonymous substitutions (dS). The ratio of dN/dS substitution across the breeds were observed to be greater than one suggesting that variation at the antigen-binding sites is under positive selection; thus increasing the chances of these breeds to respond to wide array of pathogenic attacks. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that 94.01 and 5.99% of the genetic variation was attributable to differences within and among populations, respectively. Generally, results obtained suggest that within breed genetic variation across breeds is higher than between breeds. This genetic information will be important for investigating the relationship between BoLADRB3.2 and diseases in various cattle breeds studied with attendant implication on designing breeding programs that will aim at selecting individual cattle that carry resistant alleles.
Keywords: BoLA-DRB3.2; Cattle; Diseases; Gene polymorphism.