Risk factors associated with the development of active tuberculosis among patients with advanced chronic kidney disease

J Infect. 2018 Oct;77(4):291-295. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2018.06.003. Epub 2018 Jun 19.


Objectives: The risk of developing active TB is greater in those receiving haemodialysis. This study aimed to describe the incidence of active tuberculosis among patients referred for management of kidney disease and dialysis in a high incidence UK city, with the purpose of informing latent TB testing and treatment practice.

Methods: Information from the tuberculosis register was cross-referenced with the Department of Renal Medicine patient information system. All patients seen between 1st January 2005 and 1st October 2016 were included in the analyses with the exception of those with prior TB.

Results: 68 cases of active TB were identified, an incidence of 126/100,000 patient-years (95% CI 97-169). Incidence was lowest in those with CKD 1 or 2 and rose as high as 256/100,000 patient-years (95% CI 183-374) in those receiving renal replacement therapy. 48% of cases were pulmonary and 87% of TB patients gave their ethnicity as either black/black British or Asian/Asian British, significantly more than in the non-TB renal group. Cases occurred steadily over the time period in which patients were in the cohort.

Conclusion: TB incidence was very high among those receiving renal replacement therapy or CKD 4 or 5. Most cases occurred in those of an Asian/Asian British or black/black British background. Testing and treating such patients for latent TB is justified and should include those who have been receiving renal replacement therapy for some years.

Keywords: Chronic Renal Insufficiency; Latent tuberculosis; Renal dialysis (); Tuberculosis epidemiology.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Latent Tuberculosis / diagnosis
  • Latent Tuberculosis / ethnology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Renal Dialysis / adverse effects
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / microbiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Tuberculosis / diagnosis*
  • Tuberculosis / ethnology
  • United Kingdom / epidemiology