This study is a comparison of the efficiency of three technologies used for Y chromosome capture and the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies applied for determining its whole sequence. Our main findings disclose that streptavidin-biotin magnetic particle-based capture methodology offers better and a deeper sequence coverage for Y chromosome capture, compared to chromosome sorting and microdissection procedures. Moreover, this methodology is less time consuming and the most selective for capturing only Y chromosomal material, in contrast with other methodologies that result in considerable background material from other, non-targeted chromosomes. NGS results compared between two platforms, NextSeq 500 and SOLID 5500xl, produce the same coverage results. This is the first study to explore a methodological comparison of Y chromosome capture and genetic analysis. Our results indicate an improved strategy for Y chromosome research with applications in several scientific fields where this chromosome plays an important role, such as forensics, medical sciences, molecular anthropology and cancer sciences.