Interleukin-32 (IL-32), a novel proinflammatory cytokine, is highly expressed in various cancer tissues and in established cancer cell lines. IL-32 has been revealed to serve a crucial role in human cancer development, including tumour initiation, proliferation and maintenance. The expression of IL-32 is regulated by numerous factors, including genetic variations, hypoxia and acidosis in the tumour microenvironment. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of IL-32 expression and its function are critical for the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies that target IL-32. This is a review of the current literature on the regulation and function of IL-32 in cancer progression, focusing on the molecular pathways linking IL-32 and tumour development.
Keywords: cancer; interleukin-32; mechanisms; regulation.
Interleukin-8 and Human Cancer BiologyK Xie. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 12 (4), 375-91. PMID 11544106. - ReviewThe aggressive nature of metastatic human cancer has been shown to be related to numerous abnormalities in growth factors and their receptors. These perturbations confer …
Modulators Affecting the Immune Dialogue Between Human Immune and Colon Cancer CellsM Djaldetti et al. World J Gastrointest Oncol 6 (5), 129-38. PMID 24834143. - ReviewThe link between chronic inflammation and colorectal cancer has been well established. The events proceeding along tumorigenesis are complicated and involve cells activat …
Constitutive and Inducible Interleukin 8 Expression by Hypoxia and Acidosis Renders Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells More Tumorigenic and MetastaticQ Shi et al. Clin Cancer Res 5 (11), 3711-21. PMID 10589791.The role and regulation of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the growth and metastasis of SG, FG, and L3.3 variants derived from COLO 357 human pancreatic cancer cells were determi …
The interleukin-1 Family of Cytokines and Receptors in Human Breast Cancer: Implications for Tumor ProgressionAG Pantschenko et al. Int J Oncol 23 (2), 269-84. PMID 12851675.We have previously described the expression of interleukin cytokines (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in human breast cancer (HBC) tissue. Bas …
Cancer-associated Fibroblasts Promote Endometrial Cancer Growth via Activation of interleukin-6/STAT-3/c-Myc PathwayKS Subramaniam et al. Am J Cancer Res 6 (2), 200-13. PMID 27186396.Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) secrete various pro-tumorigenic cytokines, yet the role of these cytokines in the progression of endometrial cancer remains unclear. …
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Interleukin-32: Frenemy in Cancer?S Han et al. BMB Rep 52 (3), 165-174. PMID 30638183. - ReviewInterleukin-32 (IL-32) was originally identified in natural killer (NK) cells activated by IL-2 in 1992. Thus, it was named NK cell transcript 4 (NK4) because of its unkn …