Background: Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) as possible cardiovascular disrupters are universally detected in humans. However, evidence from epidemiological studies appears insufficient and ambiguous.
Objectives: We aim to examine the serum PFCs levels and their associations with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related outcomes in general US population.
Methods: We investigated the serum levels of 12 major PFCs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (EPAH), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (MPAH), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHP), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFSA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDO), in 10,859 participants from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2014. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between serum PFCs and 5 self-reported CVD outcomes, including congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, heart attack, and stroke. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the PFCs and their associations with 8 traditional CVD risk factors like serum triglyceride and total cholesterol.
Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, total PFCs were positively associated with total CVD (p for trend = 0.0166), independent of traditional CVD risk factors, such as smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and serum cholesterol level. Compared with reference quartile of total PFCs levels, the multivariable adjusted odds ratios in increasing quartiles were 1.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91-1.66], 1.47 (95% CI: 1.14-1.89) and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.06-1.98) for total CVD. Similar positive associations were found if considering individual PFCs including PFOS, PFUA, MPAH, EPAH, PFDO, PFSA and PFBS. In addition, serum levels of MPAH and PFDO were positively associated with congestive heart failure; PFNA, PFDE, and PFUA were positively associated with coronary heart disease; PFUA and PFDO were positively associated with angina pectoris; and PFNA was positively associated with heart attack.
Conclusions: Our findings suggested that exposure to PFCs was positively associated with risk of CVD. Further longitudinal studies are needed to increase our understanding about the role of PFCs exposure in the prevalence of CVD.
Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid; Perfluorooctanoic acid; Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals.
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