Spinopelvic Parameters: Lumbar Lordosis, Pelvic Incidence, Pelvic Tilt, and Sacral Slope: What Does a Spine Surgeon Need to Know to Plan a Lumbar Deformity Correction?

Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2018 Jul;29(3):323-329. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2018.03.003.


The pelvic incidence defines the amount of lordosis required in the lumbar spine, and a lumbar lordosis within 11° of the pelvic incidence defines alignment of the lumbo-pelvic region. Pelvic tilt is a compensatory mechanism that allows patients to achieve sagittal balance in the setting of decreased lumbar lordosis with the primary compensatory mechanisms being hip extension and knee flexion. Planning an adult lumbar deformity operation requires a comprehensive history and physical examination and thorough radiographic evaluation with the goal of restoring alignment between the pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis and restoring a normal pelvic tilt.

Keywords: Lumbar deformity; Lumbar lordosis; Pelvic incidence; Pelvic parameters; Pelvic tilt; Sacral slope; Sagittal balance.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Lordosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Lordosis / pathology*
  • Lordosis / surgery*
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / diagnostic imaging
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery
  • Lumbosacral Region / diagnostic imaging
  • Lumbosacral Region / pathology
  • Pelvis / diagnostic imaging
  • Pelvis / pathology*
  • Preoperative Care