Niemann-Pick Type C1 disorder (NPC) is a rare lysosomal storage disease characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol in lysosomes. NPC has no FDA approved treatments yet, however 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) has shown efficacy for treating the disease in both mouse and feline NPC models and is currently being investigated in late stage clinical trials. Despite promising results, therapeutic use of HPβCD is limited by the need for high doses, ototoxicity and intrathecal administration. These limitations can be attributed to its poor pharmacokinetic profile. In the attempt to overcome these limitations, we have designed a β-cyclodextrin (βCD) based polymer prodrugs (ORX-301) for an enhanced pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profile, which in turn can potentially provide an improved efficacy at lower doses. We demonstrated that subcutaneously injected ORX-301 extended the mean lifespan of NPC mice at a dosage 5-fold lower (800 mg/kg, body weight) the HPβCD dose proven efficacious (4000 mg/kg). We also show that ORX-301 penetrates the blood brain barrier and counteracts neurological impairment. These properties represent a substantial improvement and appear to overcome major limitations of presently available βCD-based therapy, demonstrating that this novel prodrug is a valuable alternative/complement for existing therapies.