Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, the physiology of which is not very well understood. There are multiple factors and pathways involved in pathogenesis of this entity. Among all, dysmotility, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, altered intestinal microbiota and visceral hypersensitivity play a major role. Over the last years, research has shown that the type of gut microbiome present in an individual plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of IBS. Multiple studies have consistently shown that subjects diagnosed with IBS have disruption in gut microbiota balance. It has been established that host immune system and its interaction with metabolic products of gut microbiota play an important role in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, probiotics, prebiotics and antibiotics have shown some promising results in managing IBS symptoms via modulating the interaction between the above. This paper discusses the various factors involved in pathophysiology of IBS, especially gut microbiota.
Keywords: Dysbiosis; Enterotype; Gut microbiome; Gut microbiota; IBS; Irritable bowel syndrome; Prebiotics; Probiotics; SIBO.
Copyright © 2018 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.