Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
. 2018 Jun 25;19(6):1449-1456.
doi: 10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.6.1449.

Total Calcium (Dietary and Supplementary) Intake and Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Review

Total Calcium (Dietary and Supplementary) Intake and Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Shoboo Rahmati et al. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Controversial results have been reported concerning the influence of calcium intake on prostate cancer risk. The aim of this study was to determine any association between total calcium (in the diet and in supplements) intake and prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The present systematic review and meta-analysis study was carried out following a PRISMA guidelines. Two reviewers independently using MeSH keywords searched international databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, EBSCO and search engines such as Google Scholar. The searches were performed without any time limit until May 2016. The results were pooled using a random effects model and homogeneity was confirmed using the Q test and I2 index. Subgroup analyses was performed according to continents and study designs. The data were analyzed using STATA software version 3.2, with p<0.05 considered significant. Result: Overall, 12 studies with a total sample size of 905,046 were entered into the final meta-analysis. The main age range of the participants was 50 to 70 years. The relative risks (RR) for total calcium with total prostate cancer, localized prostate cancer, and advance prostate cancer were estimated to be 1.15 (95% CI: 1.04-3.46), 1.05 (95% CI: 0.96-1.14), and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.89-1.50), respectively. Only the relationship between total calcium and total prostate cancer was significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: High calcium intake can be considered as a risk factor for total prostate cancer. Therefore, calcium intake might be a target for prevention.

Keywords: Calcium; prostate cancer; systematic review; meta-analysis.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Entry Procedures of Studies to Meta-analysis
Figure 2
Figure 2
Forest Plot of Meta-analysis (A) and Sensitivity Analysis (B) for Relationship between Calcium Intake and Total Prostate Cancer
Figure 3
Figure 3
Forest Plot of the Subgroup Analysis Based on Continent (A), the Continent (B), Dose of Consumable (C) for Relationship between Calcium Intake and Total Prostate Cancer
Figure 4
Figure 4
Forest Plot of the Relationship between Total Calcium and Localized Prostate Cancer
Figure 5
Figure 5
Forest Plot of Subgroup Analysis Based on the Continent (A), the Continent (B), Dose of Consumable (C) for Relationship between Total Calcium and Localized Prostate Cancer
Figure 6
Figure 6
Forest Plot of Publication Bias for Relationship between Calcium Intake and Total Prostate Cancer (A) and Relationship between Total Calcium and Localized Prostate Cancer (B)
Figure 7
Figure 7
Forest Plot of the Relationship between Total Calcium and Advance Prostate Cancer
Figure 8
Figure 8
Forest Plot of Subgroup Analysis Based on the Continent Follow-up Years for Relationship between Total Calcium and Advance Prostate Cancer

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 1 article

References

    1. Ahn J, Albanes D, Peters U, et al. Dairy products, calcium intake, and risk of prostate cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Prev Biomarkers. 2007;16:2623–30. - PubMed
    1. Aune D, Lau R, Chan D, Vieira R, Greenwood D, et al. Dairy products and colorectal cancer risk:a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:37–45. - PubMed
    1. Azami M, Nasirkandy Mansouri A, Darvishi Z, et al. Global prevalence of helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women:A systematic review and meta-analysis study. Int J Womens Health Rep Sci. 2017;5:30–6.
    1. Butler LM, Wong AS, Koh WP, et al. Calcium intake increases risk of prostate cancer among Singapore Chinese. Cancer Res. 2010;70:4941–48. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Ganmaa D, Li XM, Wang J, et al. Incidence and mortality of testicular and prostatic cancers in relation to world dietary practices. Int J Cancer. 2002;98:262–67. - PubMed
Feedback